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Trauma of GI

Gastrointestinal injury can occur due to blunt or penetrating trauma to any of the organs of GI tract i.e. the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. The nature and severity of the injury specifically depends upon the injury mechanism. Injurycan be minor bruising to complete devascularization in case of blunt injuries and small perforations to devascularization for penetrating injuries.
Signs and symptoms
Generally it is very difficult to clinically assess the patient with GI trauma. But the following symptoms are very reliable and help in accurate assessment of the patient:
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Hypovolemia
Evidence of peritoneal irritation
Abdominal pain, redness, and swelling
Abdominal tenderness
Bruises, swelling, or scratches on the abdomen
Nausea or vomiting
Blood in your urine
Difficulty while passing urine
Passing little to no urine
Signs of shock, such as a fast heartbeat, dizziness, and pale skin
Bradycardia
Diagnosis of GI Trauma
It requires a thorough physical examination and test of various injury pattern predicting signs like Lap belt marks, Steering wheel???shaped contusions etc. to evaluate the condition of the patient. In addition to physical examination, following diagnostic tests are also performed:
Blood and urine tests
An x-ray, ultrasound, CT, or MRI
An angiography
A cystogram
An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Peritoneal lavage
Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST).
Management of GI Trauma
It is an emergency condition which requires immediate treatment that starts from the injury site itself. Management may involve non-operative measures or surgical treatment, as appropriate.