Surgery is the most common and main treatment for earlier-stage colon cancers. Surgery is performed with an aim to remove tumor, along with the surrounding healthy tissue and nearby lymph nodes. The choice of surgical procedure mainly depends upon the stage of cancer and condition of the patient.
Very early stage cancer is removed by putting a tube through the rectum into the colon and removing the superficial cancer and a small amount of nearby tissue. This is called a local excision.
Removal of cancer found in polyps by surgery is called polypectomy.
In case of large cancers, surgeon performs partial colectomy that involves removal of the cancer and a small amount of healthy tissue and lymph nodes around it.
In cases where reconnection of healthy portions of the colon and rectum cannot be performed, surgeon makes a stoma (an opening) outside the body to pass the waste. This procedure is called a colostomy. A bag is placed around the stoma to collect the waste. Colostomy can be reversed or permanent.
It is the procedure performed to remove the blockage caused by tumor. The procedure involves cutting of the tumor above the colon and creation of stoma.
The procedure done to remove all or part of the colon and nearby lymph nodes is called colectomy. It can be done as an open procedure or with the help of laparoscope. Colectomy is of following types:
Hemicolectomy, partial colectomy, or segmental resection is the procedure that involves removal of only a part of the colon.
Total colectomy is the removal of entire colon.